Footnotes

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TODO: This page needs to be reorganized: progression from simple to more complex use is a bit circular.. (See: To-Do List)


Contents

First View

\section{First}

Way to \ConTeXt\footnote{First footnote.} is painful.

\section{Second}

But \ConTeXt\ is amazing.\footnote{Second footnote}

\placetable
  {Complex Table\footnote{A table head footnote.}}
  {\startlocalfootnotes
   \placelegend
     {\starttable[|l|l|]
      \HL
      \NC First Column \NC Second Column \NC \FR
      \HL
      \NC East\footnote{Footnote inside graphic.} \NC  North \NC \FR
      \NC West         \NC   South          \NC \LR
      \HL
      \stoptable}
     {\placelocalfootnotes}
   \stoplocalfootnotes}

Here we have footnotes of two outer ones, a local one (in the table) and a postponed one (in the graphic).

Basic Footnotes

For basic footnotes, simply use \footnote[reference]{footnote text}. The reference is optional, and can be used to refer to the same footnote again. Footnotes can be referenced with the usual \in and \at macros (see References), or the note itself can be reproduced with \note[reference]. For example:

This\footnote[footA](Or that, if you prefer.} is a sentence with a footnote\footnote{Actually,
two footnotes; this one and \in{footnote}[footA] on \at{page}[footA], denoted by \note[footA].}.  


Thanks to Oblomov, it's also possible to use footnotes in footnotes, as in this example.

This\footnote(Or that\footnote{Or possibly even the other.}, if you prefer.} is a sentence
with a footnote.  


Footnote Numbering

You can setup the exact behaviour of footnotes as usual with \setupfootnotes. For example, to use footnotes with standard footnote symbols (which ConTeXt has defined as the conversion "set 2"), with the footnote counter resetting on each page, one would use the following:

\setupfootnotes[way=bypage, conversion=set 2]

Beware, in MkIV this became

\setupnotation[footnote][way=bypage,numberconversion=set 2]

This produces the following footnotes, using the text of the previous example.

Alternate Footnote Locations

The \setupfootnotes command offers some options for the placement of footnotes; for instance, the location=columns option places the footnotes in a single column (of a multicolumn page) rather than across the whole page. The location=text option places the footnotes in text at a location specified by \placefootnotes; this can be easily used to create endnotes, or even to place footnotes after each paragraph or subsection.

\setupfootnotes[location=text]
This\footnote[footA]{Or that, if you prefer.} is a sentence with a footnote\footnote{Actually,
two footnotes; this one and footnote \note[footA].}.  
\placefootnotes
This is some more text, with more footnotes\footnote{Specifically, this one.}.
\placefootnotes

Footnote Formatting

You can change the font used in the footnotes with \setupfootnotedefinition[before=\MyFontCommand].

Footnotes can be placed in multiple columns, using the n=number option in \setupfootnotes (in latest betas it should be added to \setupnotes or \setupnote instead).

\setupfootnotes[n=3]
This\footnote[footA](Or that\footnote{Or the other.}, if you prefer.} is a sentence
with a footnote\footnote{Actually, two footnotes; this one and \in{footnote}[footA]
on \at{page}[footA], denoted by \note[footA].}.  


TODO: This is ugly, and points up some ConTeXt bugs that need to be fixed. (See: To-Do List)


Footnotes in pagraph form

When enabling footnotes (actually notes and linenotes) in pagraph form, there is some risk in having no right separation between body and the notes. This can be partially avoided using width=broad (Hans dixit).

\setupbodyfont
   [pagella]

\setupnote
   [footnote]
   [paragraph=yes]

\setupnotation
   [footnote]
   [alternative=serried,
    width=broad,
    distance=.5em,
    display=no]

\starttext
     \dorecurse{500}{text text text\footnote{note} }
\stoptext

Footnotes in Floats

Floats cannot include normal footnotes, because they are likely to float to another page from the page on which they were defined, thus getting the footnotes out of order. Thus, to include footnotes in a float, one must use local footnotes. This table, which uses the \placelegend command to create a place for the footnotes, illustrates the process:

\startlocalfootnotes[n=2]
\placetable{A table with footnotes.}
  \placelegend
    {\starttable[|l|r|]
      \HL
      \VL One\footnote{First} \VL Two\footnote{Second} \VL\FR
      \VL Three\footnote{Third} \VL Four\footnote{Fourth} \VL\LR
      \HL
      \stoptable}
    {\placelocalfootnotes}
\stoplocalfootnotes

When using natural tables, the above leads to alignment problems. An alternative is to use:

\defineframed[noteframed]
\setupframed[noteframed]
  [width=\hsize,
   frame=off,
   align=right,
   %height=fit,
   top=\hbox\bgroup,
   bottom=\egroup]

\starttext

\startlocalfootnotes[n=0]
\placetable
{Caption}
{\placelegend
{\bTABLE
\bTR\bTD One\footnote{First} \eTD\bTD Two\footnote{Second} \eTD\eTR
\bTR\bTD Three\footnote{Third} \eTD\bTD Four\footnote{Fourth} \eTD\eTR
\eTABLE}
{\noteframed{\placelocalfootnotes}}}
\stoplocalfootnotes

\stoptext

Footnotes in a box

Note that it is necessary to add the command \automigrateinserts (for example before \starttext) in order to correctly handle the placement of footnotes within a box such as \framed or \placeongrid...

Placing Footnotes Manually

In some cases, ConTeXt's footnoting system may not be able to do exactly what you want. For instance, you may want to place a footnote in a table so that the footnote appears with the rest of the footnotes on the page, or you may want to create a footnote to a footnote to a footnote. Many of these cases can be handled by using the \footnotetext command (which creates a footnote without placing the corresponding symbol in the text) and the \note command (which places the footnote symbol in the text, but does not create a footnote).

For example, to create a footnote to a footnote to a footnote, all but the first footnotes are created with \footnotetext commands, which are placed in the main text -- thereby ensuring that the footnotes are numbered and appear in the correct order. Then, these footnotes are referenced by \note commands within the relevant footnotes. In this example, the lines are broken for clarity; note the % at the end of each line to prevent spurious spaces in the text.

This%
\footnote{Or that\note[footB], if you prefer.}%
\footnotetext[footB]{Or possibly even the other\note[footC].}%
\footnotetext[footC]{It could be something entirely different.}
is a sentence with nested footnotes.

Suppressing Footnotes Entirely

The boolean \notesenabled controls whether footnotes are processed at all. If set to false, invocations of \footnote will be ignored. After it is set to true again Context will pick up the footnote counters at their previous state, so numbering will continuous.

\setuppapersize [A7]
\starttext

  \dorecurse {2} { foo \footnote {bar} baz \par }

  \notesenabledfalse

  \dorecurse {3} { foo \footnote {bar} baz \par }

  \notesenabledtrue

  \dorecurse {2} { foo \footnote {bar} baz \par }

\stoptext

Color of Footnote Links that Refer to the Same Page

If you have set footnotes to be interactive and have noticed that your footnote links become red, it is because they are linked to content on the same page on which they appear. This means they are governed by the \setupinteraction attribute of 'contrastcolor', rather than 'color'.

To fix the redness (or change it to a different color), try:

\setupinteraction[state=start,color=black,contrastcolor=black]

Special Needs

There are numerous ways to display and format footnotes. The following section gathers solutions to some special tasks asked on the mailing list.

 \starttext

 \setupnote[footnote][align={normal,hyphenated}]

 \setupalign[hyphenated] \input tufte \footnote{\input tufte \relax} \par

 \setupalign[nothyphenated,stretch,tolerant] \input tufte
 \footnote{\input tufte \relax} \par

 \stoptext

This behavior is controlled by the location key in the \setupnotation command. Here are some examples:

Note number is typeset in an area with a width of 1cm, aligned at the left of the text area:

\definepapersize[wiki][width=8cm,height=8cm]

\setuppapersize[wiki][wiki]

\starttext

\showframe

\setupnotation[footnote][location=left,width=1cm]
\setupnote[footnote][location=page,numbercommand=]

test \footnote{test}

\stoptext 

produces

(texexec error, something is wrong with the input)


Suppose that one wants a width of 1.5em. Then

\setupnote[footnote][margindistance=0em,command=\myfootnotecommand]
\setupnotation[footnote][location=left,hang=1]

\def\myfootnotecommand#1{\hbox to 1.5em{#1.}}

The way to do this is not obvious, but this is the code you need to use:

\def\setnotebodyfont
{\switchtobodyfont[your desired font size]\setupinterlinespace[your desired spacing]} 

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