# Math/basic

<Math |

## Contents

## Introduction

To tell TeX that an expression needs to be typeset using conventions for math, type the expression in `$`

...`$`

. For examples `$x$`

gives
, while `$2$`

gives . Notice that the *x* is in italic while the *2* is upright. This is the usual mathematic convention. You can also write in the math mode using the command `\math` or `\mathematics`.

Thus, the following three are equivalent. Use the style that you prefer.

Pythagoras formula, stating $a^2 + b^2 = c^2$ was one of the first trigonometric results

Pythagoras formula, stating \math{a^2 + b^2 = c^2} was one of the first trigonometric results

Pythagoras formula, stating \mathematics{a^2 + b^2 = c^2} was one of the first trigonometric results

and gives

## Binary Operators Relations

Basic binary symbols can be produced by typing the correspoding keyboard character. These include

+ - = < >

A general expressions can be input in the natural manner. For example `$x+y$`

gives . Notice that TeX took care of the spacing around `+`

. Mathematicians use a lot of symbols that are not avialable on the keyboard. TeX (and ConTeXt) provide macros to input them. For example `$x \times y$`

gives . The following is a parial list of frequently used binary operators and relations.

Commonly Used Binary Operators | Commonly used relation symbols | Set Relations | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

\pm |
\leq |
\subset |
|||

\mp |
\ll |
\subseteq |
|||

\times |
\geq |
\supset |
|||

\div |
\gg |
\supseteq |
|||

\ast |
\equiv |
\cap |
|||

\star |
\sim |
\cup |
|||

\bullet |
\simeq |
\in |
|||

\circ |
\approx |
||||

\cdot |
\neq |

## Greek Letters

To type the greek character *α* you can say `$\alpha$`

which gives . If you have a utf enabled keyboard, you can also type the α directly and ConTeXt will correctly interpret it. For example,

\enableregime[utf] Here is some Greek math $α^2 + β^2 = γ^2$

Here is a complete list of greek letters

lowercase greek letters | variation | uppercase greek letters | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

\alpha |
|||||

\beta |
|||||

\gamma |
\Gamma |
||||

\delta |
\Delta |
||||

\epsilon |
\varepsilon |
||||

\zeta |
|||||

\eta |
|||||

\theta |
\vartheta |
\Theta |
|||

\iota |
|||||

\kappa |
|||||

\lambda |
\Lambda |
||||

\mu |
|||||

\nu |
|||||

\xi |
\Xi |
||||

\omicron |
|||||

\pi |
\varpi |
\Pi |
|||

\rho |
\varrho |
||||

\sigma |
\varsigma |
\Sigma |
|||

\tau |
|||||

\upsilon |
\Upsilon |
||||

\phi |
\Phi |
||||

\chi |
|||||

\psi |
\Psi |
||||

\omega |
\Omega |

## subscript and superscipt

TeX uses `^`

and `_`

to denote superscipts and subscipts. It is perhaps easiest to explain this by means of some examples. is written as `$x_{10}^{15}$`

or `$x^{15}_{10}$`

. The order in which `_`

and `^`

are given does not matter. One can also type complicated expressions like as `$a_{b_{c_{d_{e}}}}$`

.

To align superscripts and subscripts one after the other (not above/below each other), add empty braces `{}`

after each of them as `$T^a{}_b{}^c{}$`

to obtain . This effectively adds each index as superscript/subscript of the empty braces rather than the main character, thus aligning them separately and avoiding double superscript errors.

## List of All Math macros

In ConTeXt MkII, you can see the list of all math macros by `\showmathcharacters`.
In MkIV, \usemodule[fnt-25] followed by `\showmathfontcharacters` produces a lengthy annotated catalogue.

Here is the first page of this list